CNH Industrial is a global leader in the capital goods sector that designs, manufactures, and sells trucks, commercial vehicles, buses, special vehicles, tractors, and agricultural and construction equipment, in addition to a broad portfolio of powertrain applications.
Ongoing research into innovative solutions enables the various brands of CNH Industrial to manufacture products that respect the environment while satisfying customers’ demand for high performance and for reliable, safe, and comfortable vehicles with globally competitive operating costs. Efforts to minimize fuel consumption and polluting and CO2emissions, maximize efficiency and safety, and improve the management of the entire vehicle life cycle are pivotal to meeting the Company’s commitment to the sustainability of its products.
Given that the use phase of products can generate up to 85% of the CO2 emissions over their entire life cycle1, CNH Industrial strives to ensure a portfolio of products ever-more eco-designed, performant, and environmentally friendly, by increasing efficiency and reducing consumption and subsequent polluting and CO2 emissions.
Considering that the current regulations have reduced polluting emissions (i.e., nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) to the minimum measurable levels, the challenge for the future is to lower CO2 emissions by optimizing how the energy produced by vehicles is managed.
REDUCING POLLUTING EMISSIONS
Diesel engine combustion produces a series of pollutants including NOx and PM; their levels in exhaust gases mainly depend on the temperature of the combustion chamber, determined in the engine design phase.
NOx gases are produced at about 1,600°C, while almost all PM particles burn up at high temperatures. A choice must therefore be made between optimized combustion, producing less PM but more NOx, or less efficient combustion, resulting in the emission of fewer NOx but more PM. Lower PM levels are achievable with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), which requires periodic regeneration due to particulate build-up over time, while two systems can reduce NOx emissions.
The first is known as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), which recirculates exhaust gases in the combustion chamber to lower its temperature, thus reducing NOx levels. However, this system penalizes engine efficiency and increases particulate production, thus requiring frequent DPF regeneration.
The second system is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), which maintains optimized combustion and reduces NOx emissions through the addition of a reductant (ammonia, obtained from AdBlue). This produces little PM and requires less frequent DPF regeneration.
CURSOR 16 ENGINE OF THE YEAR 2014
In 2014, the Cursor 16 engine won the Diesel Of The Year® award, presented to FPT Industrial for its outstanding technological innovation and design. The brand created a new 16-liter engine that delivers the power of an 18-liter with the size of a 13-liter. The Cursor 16 excels in power management, combustion efficiency, and low fuel consumption, reducing Total Cost of Ownership for the customer. With its small dimensions but high power, the Cursor 16 is at the top of its class and one of the most compact engines in its segment. Suitable for construction and agricultural equipment as well as power generators, this engine is a new addition to the Cursor Series, well known for extreme reliability and flexibility. The engine uses High Efficiency Selective Catalytic Reduction (HI-eSCR) technology, developed and patented by FPT Industrial at its own research centers to ensure compliance with the stringent Stage IV/Tier 4B and Euro VI emission standards.
2014 DIESEL ENGINES MARKET
Since 2005, FPT Industrial has developed and introduced an SCR system that cuts NOx emissions by using AdBlue, a urea and demineralized water solution: the exhaust gases pass through the AdBlue, which reacts in the presence of a catalyst, breaking down NOx into non-polluting molecules (O2 and N2).
The range of Tier 4A/Stage IlIB products sold in 2014 comprises:
- 215 agricultural equipment models, up by 61% compared with 2013
- 111 construction equipment models, up by 22% compared with 2013.
The industry-exclusive ECOBlue™ HI-eSCR exhaust gas after-treatment system, developed by FPT Industrial, facilitates the compliance of New Holland's T7, T8, and T9 Series high-horsepower tractors, CR combine series, and the Speedrowers series with Tier 4B standards while maintaining outstanding efficiency and performance.
The ECOBlue™ HI-eSCR system is an evolution of the existing ECOBlue™ SCR system and is protected by seven patents. It has the highest NOx conversion efficiency in the industry (above 95%), while maintaining or improving machine productivity. The new engine control unit manages both the engine and the HI-eSCR aftertreatment system by predicting the DEF/AdBlue injection rate for the dosing module. A dedicated closed-loop system continuously monitors NOx levels in the exhaust gases, ensuring that the precise amount of DEF/AdBlue is injected during every cycle. The result is a high NOx conversion rate while guaranteeing low fluid consumption.
In 2014, Case Construction Equipment extended its range of wheel loaders with two new models, the 821F and 921F, compliant with Tier 4B emission standards. As with the Tier 4A models, Case equipped both machines with a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)-only system that treats emissions separately with Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) and does not require the engine to recirculate exhaust gas. This optimizes combustion and machine performance, lowers engine temperature, eliminates maintenance and downtime associated with filter replacement and regeneration, and helps lower fuel consumption. This is all accomplished with excellent throttle response, unrestricted horsepower, and powerful breakout force for improved profitability and optimal productivity in wheel loader applications.
The new F Series compact wheel loaders of Case Construction Equipment feature proven maintenance-free Tier 4B particulate matter catalyst solution, and offer a more compact design and greater breakout force and lift capacity compared to previous models. The new 21F and 121F models are rated at 58 and 64 horsepower, respectively, while the 221F and 321F are both rated at 74 horsepower.
A RECORD BREAKING COMBINE
In 2014, New Holland Agriculture's CR10.90 combine harvester, the world’s most powerful at 653 horsepower, set a new Guinness World Records achievement for the most wheat harvested in eight hours: a record-breaking 797,656 tons. On the day the record was set, the CR10.90’s average output was 99.7 tons/hour, peaking at 135 tons/hour, with an average crop yield of 9.95 tons/hectare. The record was achieved using a mere 1.12 liters of fuel per ton of grain harvested. The extra-long 10.5 meter unloading auger (used to transfer grain from combine to trailer), and superfast unloading speed of 142 liters/second, accelerated and simplified grain handling. The CR10.90 was also equipped with IntelliSteer™ fully-integrated auto guidance, enabling an accuracy of 1-2 centimeters and optimizing the efficiency of the 13.7-meter 840CD draper-header, the key component that cuts the crop and transports it into the combine for threshing.
REDUCING CO2 EMISSIONS
CNH Industrial strives to manufacture products that have ever-greater efficiency and ever-lower CO2 emissions by:
- optimizing consumption and energy efficiency (see also page 199)
- increasing the use of alternative fuels (see also page 201)
- developing non-conventional propulsion systems (see also page 205)
- offering telematics systems that improve productivity (see also page 205)
- helping customers to use vehicles as efficiently as possible (see also page 207).
Optimizing Energy Consumption and Efficiency
Optimizing energy consumption and efficiency is essential to all CNH Industrial business segments to increase product performance and reduce running costs, thus boosting customer productivity.
All CNH Industrial brands are actively involved in optimizing energy consumption. An example of this was 2014’s creation of an Energy Management function within the Commercial Vehicles segment, accountable for improving product competitiveness by focusing on the entire vehicle as a single integrated system, so as to reduce Total Cost of Ownership and increase residual value.
In 2014, in the Agricultural Equipment segment, New Holland significantly upgraded its T4 PowerStar™ Series tractors, the first in Europe to feature PM Cat (Particulate Matter Catalyst) technology for Tier 4B compliance.
Showcased for the first time in Europe at Cereals 2014, the series also features Common Rail engine technology for lower fuel consumption and improved operating productivity and efficiency. The two technologies combined provide up to 13% lower fuel consumption and improved engine response.
New Holland's brand new CR combine harvesters offer advanced harvesting efficiency standards.
They perform continuously, irrespective of variable crop conditions, and the Twin Pitch rotors with Dynamic Feed Roll increase performance by up to 15%. They feature New Holland's highly efficient ECOBlue™ HI-eSCR technology, which allows for exceptionally low fuel consumption and hence reduced operating costs, along with a large fuel tank offering even greater autonomy. The high capacity of the grain tank, the impressive discharge speed of up to 142 liters/second, and the increased autonomy ensure constant productivity throughout the entire operation. The CR10.90 model features the Diesel Of The Year 2014 Cursor 16 engine with ECOBlue™ HI-eSCR technology and is Tier 4B-compliant (see also page 197).
Case IH’s Axial-Flow combines are developed and built to deliver efficient and reliable productivity and ease of operation. A key element is the AFS AccuGuide GPS-controlled auto-steering system, which automatically guides the combine and is accurate to within 2.5 cm, along with major time-saving features such as the Clean Out function on the AFS Pro 700 touchscreen. The new Case IH Axial-Flow 5140, 6140, and 7140 combines were enhanced to meet the requirements of mid-sized plowing and tillage operations. All models offer increased throughput and productivity, yield the highest grain quality, and reduce losses to almost nil, even under challenging conditions.
As regards the Construction Equipment segment, Case Construction Equipment’s new Tier 4B 821F and 921F wheel loader models set the standard for horsepower performance within each size class. They also offer the same fuel-saving advantages of the Tier 4 Interim models. Each machine provides up to a 10% increase in fuel economy over the previous E Series models. Additional fuel savings of up to 30% can be achieved through a standard engine-shutdown feature available on each model, allowing the operator to limit engine idle time.
An optional efficiency package provides additional fuel savings with features such as the five-speed lockup transmission, axles with auto-locking differential, and advanced system programming.
Case’s M Series dozers deliver power and productivity through best-in-class drawbar pull (models 750M through 1650M), increased horsepower ratings, industry-exclusive SCR engine technology, a hydrostatic drive system, and an advanced load management system. The latter automatically reduces track speed (increasing torque) when the load on the blade is greater, and increases it (reducing torque) when the load on the blade is reduced, ensuring the machine is working at optimal power and efficiency. The engines on models 850M through 2050M, all built by FPT Industrial, incorporate proven SCR engine technology. This offers advantages in terms of maintenance, since there is no regeneration or diesel particulate filter to maintain, and of fuel efficiency, with some models delivering fuel savings of up to 14%. Case Construction Equipment was the first-ever heavy equipment manufacturer to integrate such technology into a dozer to meet Tier 4A standards.
At Conexpo 2014 (Las Vegas), Case Construction Equipment showcased its new Tier 4B-compliant CX350D hydraulic excavator, featuring hydraulic control and function enhancements delivering significant advances in power, fuel savings, operation and control, and performance. Indeed, the CX350D offers a cycle time up to 8% faster, improved digging force and lift capacity, up to 10% greater fuel efficiency, up to 3% greater drawbar pull, improved responsiveness, and multifunctional control. The new electrically-controlled hydraulic pump controls flow based on working conditions. The pump flow is controlled by a proportional solenoid valve that calculates optimal flows at all pressure sensors, which helps improve fuel efficiency, cycle time, and maneuverability. Other features, such as auto idle, auto shutdown, and boom-down energy save, enable the machine to run more efficiently. The Spool Stroke Control (SSC) automatically adjusts pressure according to demand during digging operations, while the electric spool control and boom-down regeneration help save energy and optimize performance.
As regards the transport of goods, Iveco’s New Daily features significant technological solutions to reduce consumption. With average fuel savings of approximately 5.5% (depending on vehicle version), fuel consumption can be further lowered on urban cycles, by up to 14%, via the Stop-Start system included in the EcoPack. Enhanced aerodynamics, especially on van models, reduce the drag coefficient by 6% (from 0.335 to 0.316). An EcoSwitch function enables driver-operated torque reduction, which cuts fuel consumption when running without load. The Smart Alternator allows recovering the vehicle’s kinetic energy when the accelerator is released. The EcoMac enables automatic climate control via an operating logic that optimizes compressor performance based on the cab’s actual cooling requirements. Lastly, further reductions in fuel consumption were achieved by introducing friction-reducing solutions such as low-friction piston rings, lowviscosity engine oil, and low rolling-resistance tires.
For passenger transport, Iveco Bus and Heuliez Bus launched their new Euro VI ranges in 2013, completely redesigned around the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). The current Iveco Bus range comprises three bus categories (city, intercity, and tourist) while Heuliez Bus comprises only city buses and, depending on model and use, boasts fuel consumption savings of 5-10% compared to Euro V vehicles. The TCO is reduced by making vehicles lighter, more efficient, and even more reliable and easier to service. All components are designed to be easily and rapidly replaced, and many components are common across the entire range, hence easier to locate and more competitively priced. Moreover, the adoption of innovative components means much longer servicing intervals (the Diesel particulate filter may not need replacing for up to four years), keeping the TCO down. Combustion is more efficient thanks to the HI-SCR system, which improves fuel economy and cuts emissions. In addition, depending on the model, passenger comfort is enhanced by a 50% noise reduction, a 10% increase in space on board, and larger window size.
Iveco Bus innovated its Crealis bus to make it suitable for Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), a transportation concept based on dedicated bus routes and priority lanes to cut traffic and congestion, which has proven to be the most efficient and cost effective worldwide compared to conventional bus routes and light rail. Iveco Bus, leader in the European market with over three hundred Euro V buses sold, launched a new Euro VI generation that is even more attractive and versatile. Available in diesel, CNG, and full-hybrid variants, the new Crealis can be customized according to more than three thousand styling combinations available as serial options.
To reduce the environmental impact of its products, besides through engine efficiency, CNH Industrial is researching the use of alternative fuels to diesel, and already has a range of vehicles powered by natural gas, biomethane, biodiesel, and bioethanol.
The main constituent of natural gas (NG) is methane (83-99%) and, for CNH Industrial, its immediate usability makes it the most promising alternative fuel. Whether in gas form (CNG) or liquefied (LNG), the basic fuel is the same; what changes is the method of storage, distribution, and use in vehicles. The main properties of natural gas make it a strategic fuel:
- minimal harmful emissions, including particulate matter (practically none) and aldehydes (-50% compared with diesel)
- minimal emission of air pollutants (-50% NOX and -90% PM compared with diesel)
- more than 80% fewer ozone-generating agents than conventional fuels
- 5% fewer CO2 emissions compared with diesel
- can be used with current production technologies
- renewable source (if derived from biomass)
- one of the best well-to-wheel fuels (-24% CO2 emissions).
NATURAL GAS-POWERED VEHICLES SOLD
|Bus CNG (Cursor 8 Engine)||42||308||324|
|Heavy Range (Stralis CNG/LNG - Cursor 8 Engine)||288||228||164|
|Medium Range (Eurocargo Natural Power - NEF 6 Engine)||36||65||33|
|Light Range (Daily Natural Power - F1C Engine)||919||1,451||915|
With a fleet including over 22 thousand compressed natural gas vehicles, and many years’ experience in the industry, FPT Industrial boasts the widest range of NG engines available on the market. Among the technologies currently available and suitable for NG engine development, FPT Industrial has chosen and developed stoichiometric combustion, the only cost-effective solution that brings emissions in line with Euro VI standards. Indeed, thanks to the closed-loop control of the lambda sensor and the use of a three-way catalyst, NG engines can reduce harmful emissions (of CO2, HC, and NOX) by 95%.
FPT Industrial’s range of natural gas engines is used for commercial vehicles, buses, and special vehicles. NG engines are available in the Cursor, NEF, and F1 series, offering customers significant cost benefits over the vehicle’s entire useful life.
IVECO AND COCA-COLA TEST NATURAL GAS VEHICLES IN BRAZIL
In 2014, Coca-Cola Femsa Brazil tested an Iveco 170E20 Tector truck running on compressed natural gas (CNG) for the delivery of beverages. The engine technology, developed by FPT Industrial, lowers operating costs thanks to a range of up to 300 kilometers, and reduces polluting emissions: compared with a similar diesel-powered vehicle, the CNG model reduces NOx emissions by 86%, particulates by 77%, and CO2 by 25%. An additional benefit of this type of fuel is the 6 dB noise reduction compared to a diesel engine. According to Iveco, the truck’s storage system comprises six high pressure cylinders holding up to 126 cubic meters of gas. These tests are part of an ongoing Iveco project begun in 2011 in collaboration with different companies, involving two CNG Daily light vehicles, two 17-ton Tectors for garbage collection, a natural gas-powered bus, and a biomethane-powered Tector.
FPT Industrial’s NG engines are undergoing growth worldwide, including in Emerging Markets, especially for public transport vehicles. In Beijing, for example, the brand has supplied CNG-powered engines to Beijing Public Transport Holdings (BPT) for more than ten years. Furthermore, at the beginning of 2014, an agreement was signed with Iveco Bus in Baku (Azerbaijan) to supply 151 Crealis buses fitted with CNG engines, ahead of the 2015 European Games.
Interest in natural gas among Emerging Markets has given rise to other projects: CNG and biomethane engines were tested in 2014 in different cities in Brazil and China, with emphasis on urban distribution, passenger transportation, and garbage collection. CNG engines performed very well in all tests, with low noise levels, low emissions, and significant savings in fuel consumption.
CNH Industrial’s interest in natural gas (NG) as a fuel goes back many years, as demonstrated by Iveco’s early investments in research on natural gas propulsion, dating back to before 1988. In that year, natural gas was tested in heavy-duty diesel engines for the first time, leading to the development of the first-ever methane-powered Daily prototype in 1995.
The variety of FPT Industrial’s natural gas engines allows Iveco to offer the most comprehensive range of commercial and industrial natural gas vehicles on the market, giving customers a real choice, from light commercial vehicles such as the New Daily Natural Power, to the Stralis LNG Natural Power truck.
Above all, natural gas-powered vehicles are ideal for transport missions in sectors such as distribution, short and medium-long haul logistics, and municipal services such as waste collection and transport. Moreover, electronic ignition engines reduce noise levels by three to six decibels compared with equivalent diesel engines, making these vehicles ideal for night missions in residential areas.
In 2014, Iveco launched the new Daily, voted International Van of the Year 2015 for providing “the greatest contribution to the standards of efficiency and sustainability of the road transport of goods with respect to environmental impact and safety”. The van is also available with a CNG engine, and its variable-section frame provides an ideal position for the fuel tanks without compromising the available space in the cargo area.
The wide range of Stralis models, on the other hand, fully meets the demand for NG-powered vehicles.
Manufactured at the Iveco plant in Madrid (Spain) and assembled on the same line as the diesel versions, the vehicles are fitted with 270 - 330 hp Cursor 8 Natural Power engines. The CNG versions have a total cylinder capacity of 400-1,300 liters, with a layout customizable according to customer requirements. The standard version of the Stralis LNG is equipped with four seventy-liter CNG tanks and one 525-liter LNG cryogenic tank. The natural gas is stored in liquid state, at a temperature of -130°C and a pressure of nine bar, and is converted into the gaseous state before direct injection into the engine. Natural gas offers both environmental and economic advantages: a Stralis LNG can reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) by 15% compared to a diesel truck. Indeed, natural gas costs much less than diesel and saves up to 40% on fuel cost, which is the main component of the TCO.
The European Union has set a target of increasing the share of biofuels and alternative fuels in the transport sector by 10% and 20%, respectively, by 2020. To reach this target, the European Commission has launched several initiatives, including the LNG Blue Corridors project, aimed at creating a distribution network with CNG and LNG fueling stations every 150 and four hundred kilometers, respectively. It will link EU member states via four priority corridors, along which LNG fueling stations will be strategically positioned. The main goal is to promote the use of LNG in long-distance heavy transport, through 14 new LNG fueling stations, and a fleet of approximately one hundred LNG heavy vehicles transiting along the four corridors. The project involves truck manufactures, fuel suppliers, the distribution network, and fleet owners. In 2014, Iveco delivered the first five LNG-powered Iveco Stralis vehicles that will travel on Italy’s roads, coinciding with Eni’s opening in Piacenza of Italy’s first LNG fueling station. Iveco and Eni, technology leaders in their respective fields, are two of the project’s 27 partners.
Natural gas also makes the ideal fuel for public transport, thanks to the low environmental impact and cut in noise levels. Iveco Bus offers the option of a compressed natural gas-powered buses with a Cursor 8 CNG engine for all variants (10.5, 12 and 18 meters), Urbanway buses, and Crealis BRT buses.
This Euro VI engine allows transport providers to extend their fleets with CNG buses that use the same technology as Euro V/EEV vehicles, which provides further advantages to the company's offer by reducing costs in training and parts. In addition, municipalities can rely on Iveco and Iveco Bus to make the most out of their CNG investments, by providing the largest gas-powered offer in the market, such as Iveco Daily as municipal vans and minibuses, Iveco Eurocargo as medium urban delivery trucks, Iveco Stralis as waste collection trucks, and the Iveco Bus range.
In addition to CNG and LNG fuels, CNH Industrial is also investing in the promotion of biomethane: a biogas that has been upgraded and adapted to automotive industry standards, and that can therefore be distributed via the current network. Biomethane also meets the provisions of Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of energy from renewable sources, which establishes a common framework for the use of such energy to limit greenhouse gas emissions and promote cleaner transport.
With the current availability of technologies enabling the independent production of biomethane, natural gas engines are also an attractive option for tractors. In fact, exploiting biogas from agricultural biomass can easily yield 98-99% pure methane. The biogas currently produced on site is used to generate electricity, but when upgraded to biomethane, it can also be used to fuel tractors, provided they are equipped with engines suitable for natural gas. The possibility of using biomethane to power agricultural vehicles has reinforced New Holland Agriculture’s belief that customers can be helped to achieve energyindependent farms.
Work continued during 2014 into research on the T6.140 Methane Power prototype. Over the year, checks were completed on prototype operation under most operating conditions. The outstanding performance was tested and confirmed both on the test bench and in the field, thus substantiating the feasibility of this biomethanepowered tractor.
The compressed methane is stored in nine tanks that are perfectly integrated into the overall design, with similar visibility and operational ground clearance as standard models. The fifty-kilo tank capacity delivers approximately half a day of autonomy during normal operation, with an additional 15-liter gasoline reserve tank. The tractor’s simple, three-way catalyst alone ensures Tier 4B compliance, without the need for additional after-treatment systems. When running on biomethane, the tractor’s carbon footprint is virtually zero, with savings of 20-40% compared with the cost of conventional fuels.
With regard to new, more environmentally friendly fuels for internal combustion engines, FPT Industrial is widening the focus of its research to the adoption of several promising renewable fuels, in line with the scientific community’s latest recommendations and with the needs of major markets.
The term Biodiesel usually refers to methyl esters (also known as FAME), produced through the transesterification of oils from crops such as rapeseed, sunflower, palm, and soy. All FPT Industrial engines are designed and warranted for optimal operation with diesel and biodiesel blends of up to 7%, according to EN590:2013 and ASTM D975-12 international standards.
For emission levels up to Euro V and Tier 4A/Stage IIIB, nearly all FPT Industrial engines sold globally are B20 or B100 compatible, provided that the biodiesel blend meets the requirements defined by standards. Case IH and New Holland Agriculture, which have been promoting and adopting biodiesel since 2006, approve the use of B20 biodiesel blends for all new Tier 4A/Stage IIIB ECOBlue™ SCR engines as long as they fully comply with the latest EN 14214:2009 and ASTM D6751-12 fuel specifications, and operate in accordance with operator manual guidelines. In 2014, in Europe and North America, FPT Industrial and CNH Industrial carried out operational and long-endurance field tests on Hi-eSCR Tier 4b/Stage IV engines using a wide variety of fuel blends. The objective was to verify the compatibility of these zero-emissions engines with FAME blends of 20-100%.
CNH INDUSTRIAL'S COMMITMENT TO PROMOTING NATURAL GAS USE
As far back as 1995, CNH Industrial identified the benefits of natural gas in terms of supply security and reduced emissions. The reduced environmental impact of natural gas was also addressed during the recent G20 in Brisbane, where the G20 Energy Efficiency Action Plan was approved, the main objective being to build multilateral cooperation between states on energy efficiency. This action plan confirms the commitment of the world’s most advanced economies to strategically increase the use of biofuels and natural gas in order to reduce the environmental impact of heavy vehicles.
During 2014, CNH Industrial promoted the use of natural gas as a fuel, actively participating in roundtable discussions and public events, and meeting with key industry stakeholders. Within the scope of Italy’s Presidency of the EU Council, CNH Industrial organized themed technical workshops during which the most important regulatory issues and the Company’s innovation priorities were discussed with representatives of the member states. In July, the Company participated, as a recognized leader in the sector, in the Natural Gas Vehicles Summit 2014, the annual event for the promotion of natural gas organized by NGVA Europe, the European association supporting the use of natural gas in transport. In October, CNH Industrial was invited to the LNG Puts Italian Shipbuilding to the Test conference, to speak about LNG in the transport sector. The conference was organized by the World Energy Council, accredited by the United Nations and one of the energy sector’s most important international organizations. In November, the Iveco Brand President gave a keynote speech at the Gas Visually event before members of the European Parliament. It was an opportunity for CNH Industrial to explain the strategic role and importance of natural gas in achieving the objectives introduced by the measures adopted at European level in the transport sector.
The Company also demonstrated its leadership in the field of alternative propulsion at various European initiatives, such as: the European event dedicated to fleet managers held in Amsterdam; Ecomondo, the international trade fair in Rimini (Italy) dedicated to material and energy recovery and sustainable development; and Smart Mobility World, the annual sustainable mobility event in Turin (Italy), where methane’s potential for sustainable mobility in agriculture and transport was put forward. Besides methane, CNH Industrial is also investing in promoting biomethane, a fuel already compatible with CNH Industrial engines. In December, the Company was present at the first ever Biomethane Day, an initiative attended by institutional stakeholders and an opportunity to witness, first hand, a concrete example of how biomethane production can improve the competitiveness of agricultural businesses, drive innovation, and create employment
In the North American market, FPT Industrial has been working on making its Tier 4B engines compatible with fuel blends up to B10, in line with the ASTM D7467-10 standard, as mandated and implemented in 2014 in the State of Minnesota (USA).
In Latin America, FPT Industrial has been testing and successfully validating its light-duty and heavy-duty engines for both on-road and off-road applications, using fuel blends of 7% biodiesel (Brazil) and 10% biodiesel (Argentina), in line with the respective legislations that came onto the market during 2014.
FPT Industrial is directing the focus of its research on second-generation biofuels, especially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (HVO). At its technical center in Arbon (Switzerland), and with the collaboration of external R&D and fuel suppliers, FPT Industrial has been performing a detailed evaluation of Euro VI heavy-duty engines for onroad applications, using HVOs as defined in the latest available draft of the EN 15940 specification for renewable fuels. The operational tests have produced positive results in terms of a potential reduction in both tailpipe and CO2 emissions. Hydro-treating vegetable oils is a modern way of producing very high-quality bio-based diesel fuels via dedicated synthesis processes, without compromising fuel logistics, engines, exhaust after-treatment devices, or exhaust emissions. In addition to such extensive testing and development within CNH Industrial, FPT Industrial has been involved in several research projects in collaboration with external R&D suppliers and universities, focusing on the continual monitoring of the rapid evolution of biodiesel technology, and on potential breakthroughs from the early stages of development.
Considering the wide availability and environmental compatibility of sugarcane ethanol in the Brazilian market, FPT Industrial has been developing bi-fuel engines running on diesel with blends of up to 40% ethanol, and engines running on 100% ethanol. These renewable fuels were tested nationwide on machine and vehicle prototypes, both in agricultural and on-road applications, yielding positive results both in terms of Total Cost of Ownership for end customers and engine reliability.
Alternative Traction Systems
The sustainable mobility of goods is the subject of much discussion, especially concerning the last leg of the supply chain, i.e., the last mile of urban deliveries. In 2011, the European Union recommended reorganizing the interface between long distance and last mile freights, suggesting the use of low emission urban trucks2. In line with the European Commission’s recommendation, the Commercial Vehicles segment offers not only natural gaspowered engines, but also diesel-electric hybrid technology for combined goods and passenger transport, and pure electric drive vehicles for last miles. Hybrid traction can be generated by either an electric or diesel engine, or a combination of the two. For the transport of goods, Iveco offers its Eurocargo hybrid, designed for urban distribution and pickups while maintaining high-speed performance and saving up to 30% on urban driving fuel consumption compared to vehicles with conventional diesel engines.
Since 1990, Iveco Bus has offered a number of diesel-electric hybrid solutions for the transport of passengers. With the new Euro VI norms in force, at the beginning of 2014 both Iveco Bus and Heuliez Bus brands further developed their hybrid buses, in both 12 and 18 meter variants. The new full-hybrid buses were enhanced with new features such as the Arrive & Go system, which allows for fully electric arrivals and departures at bus stops, with no noise or gas emissions. The environmental impact of this urban passenger hybrid transport system has been greatly reduced: average fuel consumption and CO2 emissions dropped by up to 35% compared with an equivalent diesel-only engine. A 35% decrease in CO2 emissions equals approximately 500 grams less CO2 per kilometer, or a reduction of approximately 25 tons per year for an annual mileage of 50 thousand kilometers (average value for a city bus). Customers acknowledge the excellence of Iveco’s serial hybrid architecture, as demonstrated by the sales exceeding three hundred units across France, Spain, and Italy. Among these customers is the RAPT urban transport operator serving the Ile-de-France (Paris) region, which has committed to drastically changing its bus fleet by interrupting the purchase of diesel buses in favor of hybrid ones. CNH Industrial, a historical supplier of the operator, has won several tenders with hybrid buses by both Iveco Bus and Heuliez Bus brands, and is proud to a part of this evolution.
For twenty years now, Iveco has offered electric traction vehicles with close-to-zero emissions, ideal for urban goods deliveries; the first Daily Electric, in fact, dates back to 1986. In 2015, Iveco will launch its New Daily Electric, delivering significantly enhanced electric drive features. Particular attention was given to the choice of batteries, which are lightweight, high-performance, and maintenance-free; furthermore, all battery parts are completely reusable at end of life. The vehicle has up to 130 kilometers of autonomy on an urban cycle.
(2) European Commission, White Paper, Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system, item33. /* COM/2011/0144 final */.
Technology and Telematics
CNH Industrial deploys telematics systems in precision agriculture, in monitoring construction equipment, and in onroad vehicles. This optimizes vehicle use, resulting not only in higher productivity levels, but also in lower environmental impacts through lower polluting emissions and the accurate dosing of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation.
Precision farming management revolves around intelligent farming solutions, and is based on the collection and application of a series of data to optimize the entire agricultural cycle: plowing, fertilizing, sowing, and harvesting.
Agricultural equipment is fitted with a localization and data transmission system, and with a series of sensors. These sensors evaluate the composition and humidity of each square meter of soil, and read leaf color to determine chlorophyll content, which indicates the crop’s maturity and estimated harvest quality and quantity. The system avoids skips and overlaps when harvesting, and ensures parallel tracking when working either in curved or straight tracks, on flat or undulating ground. Furthermore, single passes prevent excessive soil compaction. The system enables operations in dusty environments, in difficult weather conditions, and at night. The assisted driving system, if present, also provides for hands-free steering, thus enabling the operator to concentrate on maneuvering the apparatus. The data collected by the telematics system can assist in planning for maximum crop yields.
Case IH’s Advanced Farming System™ (AFS) products are designed to maximize uptime and make the most of short field windows during critical seasons. In 2014, Case IH announced its new AFS Connect 2.0™. The system, which will become fully available in 2015, provides a simple, intuitive view of machine location and diagnostics, features maintenance and service alerts, and allows for two-way messaging between machine operators irrespective of location. Not only does AFS Connect 2.0 work on different types of equipment, it can also serve as a central unified system to monitor, control, and manage critical data for operations involving mixed fleets. Live Time provides AFS Connect 2.0 users with a real-time view of what is happening on the machine. With a reliable, consistent, one-minute data update rate, it supplies thirty minutes of Live Time streaming of the dashboard, per day per modem.
Additionally, the CAN Viewer provides another thirty minutes, per day per modem, of real-time visibility of machine performance data, also used for remote training and diagnostics. Moreover, users can send messages to the AFS Pro 700 control center via the system’s web portal, which features a predetermined set of topics for easy operator selection. The browser interface is simple to use and accessible via desktop, laptop, tablet, or any other remote device.
New Holland Precision Land Management® (PLM) also offers a full range of customizable precision farming solutions that help improve yields, control input costs, and increase productivity. Systems such as the IntelliRate® Section Control and Variable Rate Control are used to eliminate overlaps, increase yield potential, and reduce waste. Furthermore, PLM® Connect, provides a connectivity platform between central farm operations and the equipment fleet, enabling the remote monitoring of multiple machines via a web portal, either from a centralized office or from a tablet or smartphone device The settings of any given machine can be optimized via an online portal, and communicated to other fleet operators via the system’s built-in messaging service. Another key aspect of PLM® Connect concerns actual equipment use: any machine within a fleet can be quickly examined, hence decreasing downtime and increasing performance, efficiency, and ultimately profitability. Despite being a 100% New Holland product, PLM® Connect is compatible with competitor products and with older machinery, which means that the system can be integrated into any existing fleet. New Holland’s dealers see to the customization of PLM® Connect systems to suit individual customer needs, and PLM® End User training courses are provided to customers with more complex systems managing large or multiple fleets.
CNH Industrial has also devised an innovative telematics system for construction equipment, using a GPS satellite localizer for the remote monitoring of fleet equipment, identifying position and quantifying usage. This maximizes fleet distribution across construction sites, increasing efficiency and optimizing consumption and emissions. The GPS display installed in the cab provides the operator with most operation-critical data. The system enables positioning the equipment more accurately and reducing the amount of materials to be handled, thus cutting operating costs. It also allows monitoring vehicle status, facilitating maintenance and technical support.
In 2014, to further empower construction companies to improve productivity, run more efficiently, and decrease maintenance costs, Case Construction Equipment announced the introduction of its SiteWatch™ iPad app. Whether in the field, on the road, or on vacation, the SiteWatch app provides business owners and fleet managers with in-depth performance, productivity, and maintenance data, all conveniently delivered via iPad. The SiteWatch app provides actionable information to help manage fleet maintenance, optimize machine performance and use, lower fuel consumption and idle time, and lower total operating costs. SiteWatch employs an on-board communication device that monitors the machine’s CAN-bus network, and transmits data to a designated user’s web portal. New Holland Construction, on the other hand, launched its new FleetForce™ iPad app, delivering indepth performance and productivity data via the iPad. This enables fleet managers who are temporarily in the field or away from their offices to run their fleets more efficiently, optimizing unit deployment and productivity, reducing maintenance costs, and improving security.
The IVECONNECT system, on the other hand, was realized for on-road vehicles to simplify and integrate infotainment, telephony, navigation, and driving assistance devices, as well as fleet management services.
The ergonomic interface and the seven-inch touchscreen display make working on board safe, efficient, and comfortable. The system includes the Driving Style Evaluation software, which provides commercial vehicle drivers with real-time assistance to optimize fuel consumption. The system analyzes the signals and data transmitted by the propulsion system, vehicle, and GPS, sending them to the on-board display. It then provides an overall assessment of the impact of driving style on fuel consumption, as well as tips to reduce the latter. The fleet version allows for the remote assessment of fuel consumption associated with the driving style of each fleet driver. The navigator can automatically calculate the best route based on vehicle size and mass, and provide information on traffic conditions and on the nearest mechanic or dealer. Furthermore, if necessary, the system can connect to customer assistance with one click, and automatically provide useful information while receiving indications on the technician’s estimated arrival time. The system is also connected to Driver Attention Support, which alerts the driver if tiredness is detected (see also page 211).
Supporting Responsible Use
CNH Industrial’s focus on the customer is not just about the supply of products, but extends to the way customers use them. Indeed, using a product appropriately - whether for construction, farming, or transportation - significantly contributes to enhancing its efficiency and reducing emissions. Company brands therefore offer customers electronic systems, computer tools, and targeted training activities to ensure the most comprehensive knowledge of products and fuel consumption. Information on the safe use of CNH Industrial products and behavioral tips to optimize their use are available in every owner and maintenance manual supplied with each product (see also page 220). In addition to the manual and detailed information offered to customers by dealers, CNH Industrial provides additional training activities and dedicated support tools. In 2014, a total of 39,500 hours of training on the safe use of machines was delivered to agricultural and construction equipment operators.
In on-road vehicles, for example, an efficient driving style can save 5-12% on fuel at a given average speed.
However, driving performance cannot be improved without comprehensive consumption information based on reliable data. In order to accurately quantify consumption, one must consider many factors, such as the vehicle and its components, driving style, road and weather conditions, vehicle run-in, maintenance, and load conditions. All of the above, along with the proper use of on-board devices and telematics, are systematically addressed by economy driving courses, known as Iveco Driver Training, held at Unetversity (see also page 219). The training courses are delivered by a qualified Driver Training team with an in-depth understanding of how to get the best from Iveco vehicles. The courses promote vehicle knowledge based on the ability to predict and anticipate typical driving situations on roads and motorways, providing professional drivers with comprehensive tips to improve driving style and reduce fuel consumption. Efficient driving is not only cost-effective, it also conveys a sense of responsibility to drivers, increasing their awareness and knowledge about vehicle mechanics and telematics supports.
Designed to benefit both drivers and fleet owners, Driver Training courses can be tailored to meet the needs of both, according to the mission and vehicle line, and are delivered both in classrooms and on the road. Indeed, they can be delivered to small groups directly at the locations of customers conducting daily missions, using their own vehicles and semitrailers. Programs, contents, and duration are flexible. Driver Training usually consists of:
- classroom sessions - face-to-face, practical, and interactive sessions focusing on the key factors that most affect fuel consumption. Their aim is to give drivers an in-depth knowledge of how to achieve the best driving style through the correct management of vehicle-related parameters based on various external conditions
- walk-arounds - at these sessions, participants touch the iron, learning how to perform the routine checks required to keep the vehicle roadworthy, and mastering the layout and deployment of vehicle components
- road tests - after acquiring the theoretical knowledge, drivers undergo an assisted road test to verify their actual driving style improvements. Following trainer instructions, the drivers learn hands-on about different fuel-saving driving techniques, according to mission and road morphology.
In 2014, Unetversity delivered 11,100 hours of driver training to key accounts, customers, dealer drivers, and Company demo drivers.
In addition to the driving courses, a Driving Style Evaluation system provides real-time assistance to commercial vehicle drivers to optimize fuel consumption. Based on algorithms that analyze the signals and data transmitted by the traction system, vehicle, and GPS, the system provides the driver with two indicators via the on-board display: an overall assessment of driving style impact on fuel consumption the main tips to reduce fuel consumption.
The Driving Style Evaluation system can be connected to the IVECONNECT FLEET telematics system. It also allows fleet managers to remotely assess the fuel consumption associated with the driving style of each fleet driver. Efficiency levels can be monitored via an advanced and easy-to-use telematics interface. The interaction between the driver, vehicle, and operating center allows all vehicles to be monitored, providing a real-time assessment of driving hours, fuel consumption, GPS position, and expected travel time. The customer benefits resulting from the IVECONNECT FLEET system include a reduction in total management costs while maintaining the same process efficiency.
In addition to training, CNH Industrial offers customers easy-to-use online tools, such as a calculator to quantify a vehicle’s Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). New Holland Agriculture’s CarbonID™ calculator, independently certified, allows quantifying the carbon footprint of a farm’s equipment fleet; by entering the cost of fuel and AdBlue, the tool also provides an estimate of actual savings. Meanwhile, Case IH offers an SCR Fuel Savings Calculator, i.e., an online tool to quantify savings in running costs achievable with SCR technology.
The hybrid buses by Iveco Bus and Heuliez Bus also feature a driver aid consisting of a highly visible indicator on the dashboard, which provides instant information on driving style and fuel consumption levels, and tips on how to optimize the regenerative braking energy to recharge the batteries.
(1) ACEA Position on Life Cycle Assessment, 2012.